# Comp 360

The following aims to be a short summary of the topics learned in Comp 360, Winter 2018. For a more detailed set of lecture notes, see the one by Julian Lore

## Topics Covered

• Network Flows
• Linear Programming
• Midterm
• Linear Programming (again)
• NP-Completeness
• Approximation Algorithms
• Randomized Algorithms

## Max Flow Problem

• Flow network - directed graph s.t.
• Every edge has capacity $\ge 0$
• There is a source $s$ and a sink $t$ s.t. $s \ne t$
• Flow - function $f: E \rightarrow R^+$ such that
$R^+ = { x \in \mathbb{R} \mid x \ge 0 }$
• Capacity condition - for all edges, $0 \le \text{ flow } \le \text{ capacity}$
• Conservation - for all nodes (apart from source and sink), flow inwards = flow outwards
• Residual graph from flow
• For every edge with flow $f$ and capacity $c$, draw the same edge with value $c - f$ and the opposite edge (reverse direction) with value $f$. If the value is 0, ignore that edge.
• Ford-Fulkerson
• Repeatedly find a valid path from source to sink and draw the residual graph, until no path can be found. The resulting flow will be the max flow.
• See Comp 251 Ref
• Running time is $O(Km^2)$, where $K$ is the largest capacity, $m$ is the number of edges. We are assuming that the graph connected.
• Max flow = min cut

A cut in a flow network is a partition (A, B) of the vertices such that $s \in A$, $t \in B$

Capacity of this cut is the sum of the capacities of edges going from A to B

• Faster Ford Fulkerson
• Pick shortest path (use BFS instead of DFS)
• Easy to implement, hard to analyze
• Pick fattest path (augmenting path with largest bottleneck)
• Hard to implement, easy to analyze
• Scaling Ford Fulkerson
• Set some $\Delta = 2^{\lceil log_2 K \rceil}$
• While there exists an augmenting path with bottleneck $\ge \Delta$, augment with that path - runtime $3 * O(m)$ for checking, augmenting, updating
• To find such a path, simply ignore all paths whose capacity $< \Delta$
• If no such path exists, set $\Delta \leftarrow \frac{\Delta}{2}$ and repeat; end when $\Delta < 1$ - runtime $O(logK)$

# Bipartite Graph

• Undirected graph such that the vertices can be partitioned into X and Y such that all edges are between X and Y
• Does not have an odd cycle

## Largest Matching Problem

Matching - set of edges such that no two of them share an endpoint Perfect Matching - matching that includes all the vertices

• Solving with max flow
• Construct a flow network, with all edges directed from X to Y
• Create two new vertices, s, and t
• Add edges from s to every vertex in X
• Add edges from every vertex in Y to t
• Assign capacity 1 to all edges
• Getting max flow will therefore solve for largest matching

Vertex cover - set of vertices such that removing them will remove all the edges

• Theorem (König) - in every bipartite graph, max matching = min vertex cover
• To summarize, max-flow = min-cut = min-vertex-cover = min-cut

## Disjoint Paths

• Max-flow = # disjoint paths
• For directed graph, can prove by using FF to find k, and finding k paths, removing it, and repeating (induction)
• For undirected graph, split each edge into two going into either directions (now directed). Using FF, if it results in an edge with forward and backwards flow, the edges can be cancelled out so that the edge won’t be used.

# Multi Source, Multi Sink Flow

• We may solve this by simply defining a new source s, which connects to all of the existing sources with an edge of capacity infinity. Same goes for sink.

# Baseball Elimination Problem

• Deciding if A is eliminated
• Let M = max # of points A can collect after all the matches.
$M = P_A + deg(A)$
Remove from graph.
• For every remaining edge uv, put vertex uv in network (set X).
• For every remaining team, add vertex (set Y).
• Add source s and sink t.
• Add edge with capacity 1 from s to each uv
• Add edge with capacity ∞ from each uv to each u and v
• Add edge with capacity $M - P_{self}$ from each Y to t
• Solve for max-flow
• If value = outgoing capacity of s, A is not eliminated
$Cap(A, B) = \sum_{x \in T} (M - P_x) + \text{number of matches } xy \text{ with at least one of } x \text{ or } y \text{ not in } T = max-flow$

# Linear Programming

• Special class of optimization problems: optimizing linear function over set of linear constraints

• A linear program has

• A set of variables $x_1, …, x_n$ that can take real values
• A set of linear constraints of the form $\alpha_1 x_1 + \alpha_2 x_2 + … \alpha_n + x_n = \beta$, where $\alpha_i \in \mathbb{R} \ \forall i \in 0 .. n$
• Linear objective function that we want to minimize or maximize
$c_1 x_1 + c_2 x_2 + … c_n + x_n$, where $c_i \in \mathbb{R} \ \forall i \in 0 .. n$

Feasible Region - set of all solutions satisfying all the constraints

• Feasible region can be empty, unbounded, or bounded in a convex polygon

Convex - where every two points in the region form a line segment within the region

• Benefit of convex shapes is that you can greedily find your optimization by moving along local minimas/maximas when they give a better result. You will not be stuck in a region as you might in a concave shape.

• Standard form is we are optimizing max, with all variables being nonnegative, and all other constraints as ≤ c
• To convert to standard form:
• Any inequality as ≥ can be multiplied by -1 to achieve ≤
• Any equality can be split into ≥ c and ≤ c
• Any constraint for negative variables involves replacing the variable with its negative counterpart, and updating the original constraint to be strictly nonnegative
• If variable does not have a constraint, we can replace it with the difference of two new variables, where both new variables are nonnegative. That way all used variables have the nonnegative constraint
• Useful in that it can be easily represented with matrices. Given that we have n variables and m optimization inequalities
• Let C be an n by 1 matrix of the coefficients of x in our maximization
• Let A be an m by n matrix representing the coefficients of x in each optimization inequality
• Let B be an m by 1 matrix representing the results of each optimization inequality
• Let X be an n by 1 matrix representing each variable
• We are therefore:
• Trying to find max CTX
• Such that AX ≤ B
• And X ≥ 0
• Duality - used to convince ourselves of our optimization for a LP without solving the LP
• Procedure
• Multiply every optimization inequality (1 to m) by y1 to ym
• Add up all the inequalities together
• Make the left side of our original maximization ≤ right side of our summed inequality
• Create constraints that every y variable is positive
• Create constraint such that every coefficient of our new inequality matches (y variable summation ≥ c)
• Solving this will give us the best upper bound
• Note that this also leads to a minimization in standard form

# NP-Completeness & Computational Interactability

Undecidable problems - problems that cannot be solved by any algorithm

• Undecidable Problem Examples
• Halting problem - given code with input, decide whether it eventually terminates
• Given 10 types of equally sized square tiles with four colours on each edge, can we place them such that touching edges have the same colour without rotation? The pattern must be fully repeating on both axes
• P problems - solvable in polynomial time
• Decision problems - yes/no problems
• NP problems - verifiable in polynomial time
• 3-Colourability - given an undirected graph, can we colour the vertices such that no 2 neighbouring vertices are the same colour?
• CoNP problems - no inputs are easy to verify
• Exp problems - solvable in exponential time

• Certifier
• Takes in input <w, t>
•  t ≤ O( w c) where c is a fixed constant
• w is a yes input ⇔ ∃ t for which our certifier accepts <w, t>
• Polynomial Time Reductions
• X is polynomial-time reducible to Y if there is an efficient “oracle” algorithm that solves X in polynomial time (using the oracle) whether y is a yes input for Y or not
• Written as X ≤p Y
• Thm: If X ≤p Y and Y &in; P ⇒ X &in; P
• CNF - conjunctive normal form - collection of clauses containing or’s, and joined by and’s

• SAT problem - given CNF, can we assign T/F values to variables such that the clauses are all true?
• Thm: Every problem X in NP can be polynomially reduced to SAT

• Showing that problem Z is NP-Complete
• Show that Z has an efficient certifier
• Reduce SAT or any other NP-Complete problem to Z